Examining charitable giving in real-world online donations
The current study uses big data to study professional behavior by analyzing donations for the GoFundMe platform. Through a database of over 44 million online donations, we found that 21% of the public chose not to be identified, as poll results showed that 11% of these anonymous donations (all donations) 2.3%) were not attributed to any goal. In addition, we find that donors give recipients much more elements of the same last name. We find evidence that when more heterosexual donors were shown on the screen when donating, more men and women donated. Our results show that both men and women were significantly affected by the average amount shown at the time their decisions were made, and men were more affected. We know that women have shown more sympathy than men in the messages that came with their support.
Laboratory research, comprehensive survey, and theoretical analysis were the main pursuit of science 1, 2. However, our experience does not analyze direct observations of charitable contributions required from inexperienced peer-reviewed literature. We analyze the unique data set developed on the GoFundMe online crowdfunding platform and provide up-to-date evidence on a number of current assumptions and lines of research on professional behavior.
Our primary data are observations of human behavior in its natural environment. Since this data was prepared without any intentional analysis, the questions asked about the data were considered based on the available data. In order to generate our research questions, we first inform ourselves of publicly available data on the GoFundMe platform, then in a professional way to define speculations based on previous researches and theories. View the literature on the process that can be estimated from the existing data set.
We first define the context of the dataset from which we examine the literature and provide the context before reviewing speculations. The amount paid for each GoFundMe campaign partnership is a variable of our primary interest. The interesting variable that enables each donation is a binary choice to determine whether or not a person’s name will be revealed to the public, an option that determines one’s motivations for giving. Donor and recipient names listed in the public list give rise to a number of predictable variables. Last names allow for the identification of donations to be made between family members when donors and recipients share the same last name. First names can refer to the gender of the donors and recipients, opening up the possibility to answer questions about gender differences in giving and charitable acceptance.
At the time of each donation, each page of the campaign displays potential donors with the names of the previous ten donors and the public messages they left. This allows us to analyze the impact of gender presence on previous donors as well as the effects of social comparisons on donations. The remaining messages can be analyzed with donations of emotional expressions such as language sympathy. By analyzing all the above information about each charitable decision, we were able to make significant contributions to a number of research papers related to the forecasts shown below.
The protracted question is whether professionalism is always motivated by some special interest. It is important to distinguish the evolutionary and psychological formulas for this question. From an evolutionary standpoint, there is a fear of how abstinence in humans has evolved. The psychological question is whether it is possible to work with the ultimate goal of promoting human well-being. In this paper, to address the issue of psychological greatness, we look for charitable donations on the platform that we cannot attribute to any selfish goals as their ultimate motivator. With our GoFundMe data alone, there is no way to determine if donations (even unknowns) are ultimately driven by some selfish goals. As such, we estimate the percentage of donations that were not driven by any selfish goals using additional survey data collected from GoFundMe users. Our first assumption is that a large proportion of non-zero contributions cannot be ultimately driven by any unintended goals.
The evolutionary question of greatness asks whether it is possible to develop a method of spending resources for the benefit of others while realizing that it reduces the reproductive fitness of charities. The three main data on how greatness is related to human beings is that female choice, monopoly and sexual choice are 6.7.
The choice of relatives indicates that the person is ready for the risk of taking costly measures to benefit the hereditary relatives.
In fact, many studies have begun to shed light on the different triggers and contexts that play a role in determining which species is most effective. Some previous work has shown that the recipient’s gender is influential, but the results have been matched so that the sex is more generous. 22, 23, 25, 26. These mixed results have put an end to our third guesses somewhat. We assumed that male and female donors give different amounts to recipients from recipients.
Regarding the aforementioned sexual selection theory, previous works 27, 28 explain that people, especially men, can act exclusively to issue expensive signals. To test this in the current study, we determined the amount of information that donors calculated the percentage of female donors that appear on the campaign page at the time of each donation decision to increase their potential audience for generosity. I provided information about, therefore, our fourth hypothesis is that when women have more women on the page when making donation decisions, men donate more.
Another context in which men are encouraged to do more charitable work than women when they are exposed to social comparisons. Mayer 24 found that men were given more when they were told that many were given when they told each other more than others. The participation of women was not significantly different in either case. These discoveries lead to our fifth assumption that men are affected by social comparisons when donating. Formally, we expect that when men make donation decisions, the average previous donor contributions shown on this page appear higher than when men donate more on average.
Finally, another important factor in charitable decisions is empathy. A meta-analysis of Eisenberg and Lenin 30 shows that women are more likely to report self-compassion than men. Additionally, previous work has shown that women are more likely than men to sympathize with recipients. These results indicate that women are more sympathetic than men in donation messages.
This work analyzes a large data set of charitable contributions in the real world to investigate the above assumptions regarding gender differences in human well-being and charitable work.
Donation data collection
We collected 558,067 individual donation transactions in 9 9,264 US campaigns. The average donation was $ 50, and he collected 44 44249733 social welfare services. Campaign dates from January 2012 to June 2016 in our dataset.
Is the donation completely discreet?
In general, in the complete data set, 21.11% (SE = 0.06) of the public in donation transactions were unknown. The median anonymous donation was 3535. The total amount of anonymous donations is 10 10,247,209, or 23.16% (SE = 0.3) of all dollars in the entire data set. The anonymous nature of these donations rejects some selfish incentives, such as indirect receipts. However, we cannot rule out the possibility of a selfish goal, such as donating self-rewards in the form of maintaining a positive self-image or receiving it directly with the recipient (who can see the names of all donors). There was a need for additional survey data to estimate the percentage of donations mainly made through untargeted targets.
To better understand the motivations behind GoFundMe donations, we analyzed responses to the questionnaire from 305 GoFundMe donors. We offer a comprehensive set of possible incentives for donors to donate to GoFundMe. Participants reported stimuli that affected their decisions and rated them as less than impressive. We asked questions designed to test every stupid target looking to raise money. Figure 1 shows the proportion of donors, each of whom has been awarded with their primary incentive status.
This result indicates the arrogant impulses that make up the majority of GoFundMe donations. However, focusing on anonymous donations can lead to a more severe diagnosis of hypothyroidism than our data. Of the 305 GoFundMe donors we surveyed, 173 said they had previously made an unknown donation. We asked each of these anonymous donors the same set of questions about the motives behind most of his recent anonymous donations. We also asked realistic questions for anonymous donors such as “Have you ever told someone to donate?
The rest of our speculation relates only to donors who have not chosen to remain anonymous. After anonymous donations, multiple donors, and cancellation of unannounced donations, our dataset performed 312,613 transactions in 8,987 campaigns, of which the donation is 21,543,258. Women made 199,473 contributions (63.81%; SE = 0.09) and men made 113,140 contributions (36.19%; SE = 0.09% P <0.0001% T (312,610) = 60160.7; Cohen’s d = .290.29). 50% different. In all, women donated 11,928,532 and men 9 9,614,726. Women often donate more, but when men donate to a campaign, they donate much more (t (145,290) = −34.9, p <0.0001; Cohen d = 0.14). ۔ The average donation was $ 50 for men and $ 40 for women.
Gradient mixed effects
We apply the mixed effects regression to diagnose assumptions 2 to 5. The result is the amount of each donation in USD variable. The gender of the donor is designed with a placebo (donor gender) representing 0 females and 1 male. The results of this regression are shown in Table 1. We will now describe the rest of the forecast variables as they relate to our assumptions.
Do donors provide more for family members?
To estimate hypothesis 2, that donations are higher when recipients share the same surname in the name of the donor, we created a binary variable (same last name) that represents whether the recipient was the donor’s last name (0 = did not have a last name). Noun; 1 = was the same as last name) and includes the predictive variable. By sharing the last name like the agent associated with the family, we assume that when the donor and recipient have the same last name, they are likely to be associated.
We find that when the recipient had a donor-like last name, the average donation was $ 29.27 (P <0.0001; 95% CI = 26.38, 32.16). This effect is statistically significant and supports hypothesis 2.
Do women receive more than men?
To review hypothetical concept 3 with respect to the average amount given to male and female recipients, we used the recipient’s gender (the recipient’s gender; 0 = female, 1 = male) as a predictor. And interact with the gender of the donor. The estimated coverage for recipients is .151.15 (p = 0.15; 95% CI = .2.71, 0.41), indicating that male recipients receive an average less than recipient when donors were female, although this outcome is not significant. Statistic. One of the combinations of interaction between recipients and the sex donor is .01.06 (P = 0.11; 95% CI = 0.32.34, 0.22), indicating that men pay on average a significantly lower price than campaigns produced by men. Although this result is not statistically significant. The direction of these results is somewhat consistent with the previous results, however, none of these qualifications differ significantly from zero in the fifth level. Therefore, these results fail to support hypothesis 3.
Do men contribute an expensive indicator?
To test hypothesis 4, that when men are more visible, men give more, we take samples from the 0 to 1 visible donor percentage as a continuous predictive variable (the proportion of visible women). This changing page describes the percentage of visible donors who were women at the time of each donation.
If men are encouraged to increase their participation in broadcasting costly signals, we hope that when donors make their decisions, the proportion of female donors will appear on the campaign page. To investigate this, we created a model to interact with the conscious gender of donors and the proportion of women who appear to know the effects of women appearing on donors and memos.
A large qualification of .42.47 (p = 0.002; 95; CI = −4, .90.93) for the ratio of interactive females indicates that donors are given less because of the increase in the visible number of visible donors. Women were also not supposed to be affected by the apparent presence of the opposite sex, but we find important evidence from this statistic. The important statistical ability to interact with visible women and the sex ratios of the donor is 3.29 (P = 0.004; 95; CI = 1.04, 5.54). This shows that the impact of visible donors is much higher (and positive) than that of visible donors. Recipient regression analysis without variable variables, with this large sample size, is shown in Appendix–– tables of this evidence and even the strongest evidence of this effect, including the significant impact of the visible female statistics of male donors. Gifts These results support hypothesis 4.
Are men more affected by social comparisons?
To test the hypothesis 5 that men are affected by social comparisons, we include the average contribution shown at the time of each donation (meaning the donation shown) as a prediction. In order to create reasonable donation variables, we calculated the average donation shown on each page of the campaign at the time of each donation decision. We mean it as a changing center. We modeled the interaction of this variable with the gender of the donor. The estimated coefficient for projected donations is 0.05 and is important (P <0.0001; 95% CI = 0.05, 0.06), indicating that previous donations are associated with higher contributions from female donors. The reaction term is positive and critical with an estimate of 0.07 (P <0.0001; 95; CI = 0.06, 0.08). This indicates that this pattern is also present for men and is much more powerful than women, which supports the hypothesis.